In this section, we discuss how OEMs and suppliers may customize Uptane to meet special requirements.
Scope of an update
An OEM and its suppliers MAY use an image to arbitrarily update some code and data on an ECU, but not all. In addition, an image can be used to update code only, data only, or any other combination of the two elements.
Examples of code updates delivered via an image include the bootloader, shared libraries, or the application that provides the actual functions of the ECU. Examples of data updates include setup or initialization data, such as engine parameters, application data, such as maps, and user data, such as an address book or system logs.
Figure 1. An example of how code and/or data may constitute an image.
Delta update strategies
In order to save bandwidth costs, Uptane allows an OEM to deliver updates as delta images. A delta image update contains only the code and/or data that differs from the image currently installed on the ECU. In order to use delta images, the OEM SHOULD make the following changes.
The OEM SHOULD add two types of information used by the Director repository to the custom Targets metadata: (1) the algorithm used to apply a delta image, and (2) the Targets metadata about the delta image. This is done so that ECUs know how to apply and verify the delta image. The Director repository SHOULD also be modified to produce delta images, because Uptane does not require it to compute deltas by default. The Director repository can use the vehicle version manifest and dependency resolution to determine the differences between the previous and latest images. If desired, the Director repository MAY encrypt the delta image.
As these images are produced on demand by the Director repository, Primaries SHOULD download all delta and/or encrypted images only from that source. After full verification of metadata, Primaries SHOULD also check whether delta images match the Targets metadata from the Director repository in the same manner in which they would check such metadata when using non-delta images.
Finally, in order to install a delta image, an ECU SHOULD take one of the actions described in Table 1, depending on whether or not the delta image has been encrypted, and if the ECU has sufficient additional storage to store a copy of the image. Note that the OEM MAY use stream ciphers in order to enable on-the-fly decryption on ECUs that do not have sufficient additional storage. In this case, the ECU would decrypt the delta image as it is downloaded, then follow the remainder of the steps in the third box.
Table 1. The actions an ECU SHOULD take to install a delta image as determined by its access to additional storage and whether or not the image is encrypted
Dynamic delta updates vs. precomputed delta updates
Delta updates can be computed two different ways: dynamically for each ECU during the installation process (dynamic delta updates), or in advance of installation by precomputing likely possible delta images (precomputed delta updates). Both types of updates appear below in the subsection on custom installation instructions.
Dynamic delta updates reduce the amount of data sent in each update, while allowing for fine-grained control of what version is installed on each ECU. By using the custom field of the Targets metadata, the Director can be configured to specify a particular version of software for every ECU. Dynamic delta updates allow the Director to track resources at file granularity, which can save bandwidth.
A drawback of dynamic delta updates is that, if many ECUs are updating from the same version, computing the delta of each can result in duplicate computation that could be time consuming or use up a lot of memory. A possible solution to this is to use precomputed delta updates.
To send precomputed delta updates, the Director precomputes various probable diffs and makes these available as images. The Director then specifies which precomputed image to send to each ECU by using the custom field of Targets metadata, as described below in the Adding dynamic directions subsection. Precomputing the delta images has the added advantage of allowing these images to be stored on the Image repository, which offers additional security against a Director compromise.
Uptane in conjunction with other protocols
Implementers MAY use Uptane in conjunction with existing protocols for sending updates to the vehicle, such as in the following scenarios:
Implementers MAY use TLS to encrypt the connection between Primaries and the Image and Director repositories, as well as the connection to the source used to provide the current time.
Implementers MAY use OMA Device Management (OMA-DM) to send Uptane metadata, images, and other messages to Primaries.
Implementers MAY use Unified Diagnostic Services (UDS) to transport Uptane metadata, images, and other messages between Primaries and Secondaries.
Any system being used to transport images to ECUs will need to be modified only to permit transport of Uptane metadata and other messages. Note that Uptane does not require authentication of network traffic between the Director and Image repositories and Primaries, or between Primaries and Secondaries.
However, in order for an implementation to be Uptane-compliant, no ECU can cause another to install an image without performing either full or partial verification of metadata. This is done in order to prevent attackers from being able to bypass Uptane and execute arbitrary software attacks. Thus, in an Uptane-compliant implementation, an ECU performs either full or partial verification of metadata and images before installing any image, regardless of how the metadata and images were transmitted to the ECU.
Using Uptane with transport security
In general, Uptane’s security is orthogonal to security systems at other network layers, such as transport security or data link security. If a security system at the transport layer is already deployed for other services, or is effectively free to deploy, there is little reason not to use it. For example, it could be beneficial to have a common system provide authentication for all services in a vehicle. For new implementations, there are several reasons to consider use of a security system at the transport layer in coordination with Uptane.
The most important of these reasons is to insure, as should be true of all cybersecurity sensitive applications, that Uptane implementations use defense-in-depth strategies, as defined in NIST Document IR.8183, to ensure that all vulnerabilities and attack surfaces are protected by multiple and diverse detection and mitigation defenses. Thus, even though Uptane is designed to retain strong security guarantees in situations where there is either no transport security or where the transport security is compromised by an attacker, building on top of a such a system can augment the application layer image signature/package signature. There is little downside to such an arrangement as long as the cost is minimal, especially if the security system can improve detection, mitigation, or reporting of network disruptions. Another argument for using a transport security system is that emerging regulations or OTA update standards could require or recommend that security be provided at the transport layer.
We expect that the most common deployment configuration of Uptane on vehicles would feature one Primary per vehicle. However, there could be cases where having multiple, active Primaries in a vehicle would be useful. One such case would be providing redundancy if some, but not all, Primaries fail permanently. The OEM MAY use this setup to design a failover system in which one Primary takes over when another fails. If so, then the OEM SHOULD take note of the following considerations in order to prevent safety issues.
It is highly RECOMMENDED that, in any given vehicle, there be a single, active Primary. This is because using multiple, active Primaries to update Secondaries can lead to problems in consistency, especially when different Primaries try to update the same Secondaries. If an implementation is not careful, race conditions could cause Secondaries to install an inconsistent set of updates, with some ECUs installing updates from one Primary, while others take their updates from the second Primary. This can cause ECUs to fail to interoperate.
If multiple Primaries are active in the vehicle at the same time, then each Primary SHOULD control a mutually exclusive set of Secondaries, so that each Secondary is controlled only by one Primary.
Atomic installation of a bundle of images
An OEM might wish to require atomic installation of a bundle of images, which means that if one or more update in the bundle fails, none of them will be installed. Uptane does not provide a way to guarantee atomic installations because the problem of atomicity is out of its scope. It is challenging for ECUs to atomically install a bundle in the face of arbitrary failure. If just one ECU fails to install its update for any reason, such as a hardware failure, then the guarantee of atomicity is lost. Furthermore, different OEMs and suppliers already have established ways of solving this problem. Nevertheless, we discuss several different solutions for those who require guidance on this technique.
The simplest solution is to use the vehicle version manifest to report any atomic installation failures to the Director repository, and then not retry installation. After receiving the report, it is up to the OEM to decide how to respond. For example, the OEM MAY require the owner of the vehicle to diagnose the failure at the nearest dealership or authorized mechanic.
Another simple solution is for the Primary and/or Director to retry a bundle installation until it either succeeds or reaches a set maximum number of retries. This solution has the advantage of not requiring ECUs to perform a rollback if a bundle is not fully installed, a step ECUs with limited secondary storage cannot perform.
If all ECUs do have sufficient additional storage, and can perform a rollback, then the OEM could use a two-phase commit protocol. We assume that a gateway ECU would act as the coordinator, which ensures that updates are installed atomically. This technique should ensure atomic installation as long as: (1) the gateway ECU behaves correctly and has not been compromised, and (2) the gateway ECU does not fail permanently. It is considerably less complicated than Byzantine-fault tolerant protocols, which could have a higher computation/communication overhead. However, this technique does not provide other security guarantees. For example, the gateway ECU could show different bundles to different Secondaries at the same time.
2nd-party fleet management
Figure 2. Two options for fleet management with Uptane.
Some parties, such as vehicle rental companies or the military, might wish to exercise control on how their own fleet of vehicles are updated. Uptane offers two options for serving these users, as illustrated in Figure 2. Choosing between them depends on whether the fleet manager wishes to have either complete control, or better compromise-resilience.
In the first option, which we expect to be the common case, a fleet manager would configure the mapping metadata on ECUs such that Primaries and full verification Secondaries would only trust an image that has been signed by both the OEM-managed Image repository and the fleet-managed Director repository. Partial verification Secondaries would only trust an image if it has been signed by the fleet-managed Director repository. The upside of this option is that the fleet manager, instead of the OEM, has complete control over which updates are installed on its vehicles. The downside of this option is that if the fleet-managed Directory repository is compromised, attackers can execute mix-and-match attacks.
In the second option, a fleet manager would configure the mapping metadata on ECUs such that Primaries and full verification Secondaries would trust an image that has been signed by three repositories: the OEM-managed Image repository, the OEM-managed Director repository, and the fleet-managed Director repository. The upside of this option is that attackers cannot execute mix-and-match attacks if they have compromised only one of the Director repositories. The downside of this option is that updates cannot be installed on vehicles unless both the OEM and fleet agree on which images should be installed. This agreement could require both Director repositories to communicate using an out-of-band channel. Using this option also means that partial verification Secondaries should be configured to trust the Director repository managed by either the OEM or the fleet, but not both, since these Secondaries might only be able to check for one signature.
Figure 3. An OEM MAY allow a third party to negotiate which updates are installed.
In its default implementation, Uptane allows only the OEM to fully control which updates are installed on which ECUs on which vehicles. Thus, there is no third party input about updates from a dealership, mechanic, fleet manager, or the end-user. There are very good reasons, such as legal considerations, for enforcing this constraint. However, sharing this capability exists to the extent that the OEM wishes to make it available. We discuss two options for doing so.
In the first option, an OEM MAY elect to receive input from a third party as to which updates should be installed. The process is illustrated in Figure 3.
Step 1: The vehicle submits its vehicle version manifest to the Director repository controlled by the OEM. The manifest lists which updates are currently installed.
Step 2: The Director repository performs dependency resolution using the manifest, and proposes a set of updates.
Step 3: The third party either agrees with the OEM, or proposes a different set of updates. This step SHOULD be authenticated (e.g., using client certificates, or username and password encrypted over TLS), so that only authorized third parties are allowed to negotiate with the OEM.
Step 4: The OEM either agrees with the third party, or proposes a different set of updates.
The third and fourth steps MAY be repeated up to a maximum number of retries, until both the OEM and the third party agree as to which updates should be installed.
In the second option, the third party MAY choose to override the root of trust for ECUs, provided that the OEM makes this possible. Specifically, the third party could overwrite the map and Root metadata file on ECUs, so that updates are trusted and installed from repositories managed by the third party instead of the OEM. The OEM could infer whether a vehicle has done so by using its inventory database to see if the vehicle has recently been updated from its repositories. The OEM MAY choose to not make this option available to third parties. It can do so, for example, by using a Hardware Security Module (HSM) to store Uptane code and data, which prevents third parties from overriding the root of trust.
Custom installation instructions for ECUs
Most inputs to ECUs are delivered as signed Targets files, stored on the Image directory, and then sent to the ECU by the Director. However, there could be some cases where the inputs required for a particular customization cannot be configured to follow this standard signing process. Variations in input could be due to not knowing the input in advance, or a need to customize instructions for each vehicle. Examples of such inputs could be a command line option that turns on a feature in certain ECUs, a configuration sent by a Director repository to an ECU, or a Director doing a dynamic customization for an ECU. We can collectively call all these non-standard inputs “dynamic directions.” Uptane allows ECUs to access dynamic directions in two different ways, each having particular advantages for different use cases.
Accessing dynamic directions through signed images from the Director repository
The first option for providing dynamic directions is to slightly modify the standard delivery procedure described above. The Director repository would still send a signed image to the ECU, but this file would not be stored on – or validated by – the Image repository. As the Image repository is controlled by offline keys, it cannot validate a file created dynamically by the Director.
Even though the Image repository cannot sign the file, this modification still provides some security protections. The ECU would continue to have rollback protection for a file sent this way, as a release counter will still be included in the metadata and incremented for each new version. If additional validation is needed, the file could be put on multiple repositories created for this purpose. These repositories could behave similar to the Director repository, but would all have separate keys to allow for additional security. The Primary ECU will be aware of these extra repositories so it can check for consistency by downloading and comparing the image from all repositories.
Adding dynamic directions to the custom field of Targets metadata
Another way to provide dynamic directions is to use the custom field of the Targets metadata file. This field provides the option to include custom inputs to individual ECUs. Using the custom field is an especially good option for managing small variations in the existing image. For example, a compilation flag to enable a navigation feature might be set on some ECUs, but not on others. The custom field could contain dynamic directions, and additional subfields would help determine for which ECUs the direction is intended. In this flag example, the Director can put the ECU ID and the flag into the custom field so the flag will be used during the installation process only on that particular ECU. This custom field can then be included in the Targets metadata received by all ECUs. The intended ECU would be able to check for this flag and use it during an installation or update to enable the navigation system.
However, using this method of providing dynamic directions means that a compromise of the Director repository might be able to cause ECUs to misconfigure their images. One way to mitigate this risk would be to require the Image repository to sign off on exactly the same directions using its own custom Targets metadata. It should be noted, though, that this is difficult to achieve considering that such directions are supposed to be dynamic in the first place. Therefore, proceed, if necessary, with caution.
Picking an option: security tradeoff
In choosing whether to send dynamic directions through the custom field of the Targets metadata from either the Director or the Image repository, one needs to consider how security-sensitive the receiving ECU may be.
Using the Director repository to encode dynamic directions provides more flexibility, as directions can be made or changed on demand. However, there is a significant trade off in terms of security. Should the Directory repository be compromised, attackers would have this same power. This has important ramifications for ECUs that perform partial, or even full, verification. On the other hand, using the Image repository provides the opposite tradeoff. Dynamic directions are more secure, but offer less flexibility to make changes.
It is important to consider this tradeoff when deciding how to send dynamic directions. If the ECU is security critical, these directions should be sent using the custom field of Targets metadata and stored on the Image repository. In any case, using either repository should not result in significant bandwidth costs for ECUs, as ECUs that perform partial verification should continue to receive only directions for itself from the Director repository.
Certain types of updates, like maps, rules-of-the-road, or traffic notifications, are only relevant to vehicles within a specific location. These location-based updates require that a device be able to report its location in some way. For example, the device could obtain its location by using a GPS sensor and report it as custom metadata in the vehicle version manifest using the “geo:” URI scheme defined in RFC 5870.
Such a system would require a way to reference location for all applicable targets in the custom section of the Targets metadata for the Image repository. The Director would then be responsible for identifying which device locations match those of targets on the Image repository. If a match is found, the Director SHOULD update its Targets metadata to instruct the relevant devices to install the location-based updates appropriate for their positions.
It is possible that the vehicle’s position may have changed by the time the vehicle receives a location-based update. The device MAY check that its current position matches that of the target before installation, and the implementer MAY decide to abort the update if the location no longer matches.
In certain instances, government agencies and regulatory bodies, such as the U.S. Department of Transportation, the Department of Homeland Security, or the Federal Emergency Management Agency (or their state, local, or international equivalents), may need to download location specific updates directly to vehicles. A scenario of this type might occur if there are changes to the rules of the road across a state or country border, or if re-routing needs to occur due to an emergency condition, such as a flood.
Being able to grant this sort of access would likely require changes in some Uptane configurations, such as adding Director or Image repositories, or supporting different key management systems. Prioritizing conflicting updates in such a system would bring with it a number of questions. For example, if a government agency has the ability to remotely override functionality of a vehicle, would these commands be issued by one central server, or would each OEM have to maintain two Director repositories—one for the company and one for the agency? If a government body can issue a command for an update, would a driver be able to pull to the side of the road, or reduce speed to below 25 MPH at a safe deceleration rate, or would the vehicle come to a stop wherever it might be?
At this point, Uptane is not ready to propose an answer to any of these questions. As other standards teams (ISO 204 and IEEE 1609) are currently considering the issue of government updates, we prefer to wait on those decisions, and then work with automotive community to adapt the existing Standard to meet these design requirements.